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Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a natural hormone that plays a role in maintaining normal blood glucose levels.4


As a practitioner caring for type 2 diabetes patients, you may see many individuals that struggle with high blood glucose. This is, at least in part, due to an inadequate GLP-1 RA response.1-3, 5

Loss in beta-cell mass[12]

Loss in beta-cell mass[12]

Decrease in beta-cell function[10]


Højberg PV, Vilsbøll T, Rabøl R, et al.

Four weeks of near-normalisation of blood glucose improves the insulin response to glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2009;52:199-207.


Kjems LL, Holst JJ, Vølund A, Madsbad S.

The influence of GLP-1 on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion: effects on beta-cell sensitivity in type 2 and nondiabetic subjects. Diabetes. 2003;52:380-386.


Calanna S, Christensen M, Holst JJ, et al.

Secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analyses of clinical studies. Diabetologia. 2013;56:965-972.


Aronoff SL, Berkowitz K, Shreiner B, Want L.

Glucose metabolism and regulation: beyond insulin and glucagon. Diabetes Spectrum. 2004;17:183-190.



Campbell JE, Drucker DJ.

Pharmacology, physiology, and mechanisms of incretin hormone action. Cell Metab. 2013;17:819-837.


Drucker DJ.

Mechanisms of action and therapeutic application of glucagon-like peptide-1. Cell Metab. 2018;27:740-756.


Korner M, Stöckli M, Waser B, Reubi JC.

GLP-1 receptor expression in human tumors and human normal tissues: potential for in vivo targeting. J Nucl Med. 2007;48:736-743.


Muscogiuri G, DeFronzo RA, Gastaldelli A, Holst JJ.

Glucagon-like peptide-1 and the central/peripheral nervous system: crosstalk in diabetes. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2017;28:88-103.


Nauck MA, Meier JJ.

Incretin hormones: their role in health and disease. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2018;20:5-21.


DeFronzo RA.

From the triumvirate to the ominous octet: a new paradigm for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes. 2009;58:773-795.


Holst JJ, Knop FK, Vilsbøll T, Krarup T, Madsbad S.

Loss of incretin effect is a specific, important, and early characteristic of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(suppl2):S251-S257.


Leahy JL.

Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Arch Med Res. 2005;36:197-209.


Herzberg-Schäfer S, Heni M, Stefan N, Häring H-U, Fritsche A.

Impairment of GLP1-induced insulin secretion: role of genetic background, insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012;14(suppl 3):85-90.


Nauck MA, Meier JJ.

GIP and GLP-1: stepsiblings rather than monozygotic twins within the incretin family. Diabetes. 2019;68:897-900.


Simonson G, Cuddihy R, Reader D, Bergenstal R.

International diabetes center treatment of type 2 diabetes glucose algorithm. Diabetes Manage. 2011:1:175-189.